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INTRODUCTORY ESSAY.                         205
Under this name we include the lower part of the Chenah
valley, to the plains of the Panjab, Banahal on the southern
slopes of the chain bounding Kashmir on the south, Badarwar
on the confines of Chamba to the east; whilst to the north,
this province passes into that of Kishtwar, which may he said
to commence where the course of the Chenab changes from
north-west to south-west. Though probably differing little
in physical features from Chamba on the east, it is known
much better, from having been traversed in several directions
by botanists.
The bounding mountains of Jamu attain an average ele-
vation of 13-14,000 feet; the Banahal Pass to Kashmir is
10,000 feet; that of Padri into Chamba has already been
given as 11,000 feet; the bed of the Chenab is a little above
1000 feet near Jamu, and that town itself is 1500 feet.
The outer ranges of sandstone hills rise gradually from the
plains of the Paujab (elevated 1000 feet), and are covered with
a loose scrub of tropical, dry country, both eastern and western
forms, as Dodonaa, R&ttlera, Rondektia, Phoenix syfoestris,
Pmus longifolia, Solatium Jacquim, Sissoo, Celastrus, Zizyphus,
Mango and Pepul, Cassia Fistula, Rhus, Salix tetrasperma,
Coriaria, Bauhmia Vdhlii, Euphorbia pentagona, Cocculus
laurifolms. In the temperate region, the prevalent Hima-
layan forms of Simla appear in much reduced numbers, with
FotJiergilla, Quwcus incana, Andromeda ovalifaliay JUiododen-
dron campanulatum, and Sabia campanulata. Besides these,
Quercus dilatata, Q. semecarpifolia^ and Rhododendron arbo-
reum, which hardly occur further west and do not enter Kash-
mir, are all found in Jamu.
Of plants which probably do not occur much, if at all, fur-
ther west than the Jamu hills, areó
Biododendron campamflatum*     Phoenix sylv&ttrix.
urlorcum,          - Priusepia ntilis.
G ualtheria irickbtUfa               Uul>uts,//c<